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published in 1938, an American historian, Professor
Raymond Sontag, not only noted how great was
England's fear of Russian policy and power—which
affected us in our Asiatic interests as well as nearer home
in the period before July, 1914—but added the opinion
that in the light of these documents we must say that
England had greater dread of Russia than of Germany.
We were so afraid—so conscious of the immediacy of
the threat on the side of Russia—that we felt it essential
that this Power should be our ally. In July, 1914, Sir
Edward Grey, who has been criticised for his subser-
vience to expert advice at the Foreign Office, was warned
by his experts that " the moment has passed when it
might have Been possible to enlist French support in
an effort to hold back Russia ". Sir Arthur Nicolson
wrote in connection with a telegram of 24 July from
St. Petersburg : " Our attitude during the crisis^ will be
regarded by Russia as a test and we must be careful not
to alienate her ". If our views concerning the Russian
bogy changed, it would require clear evidence to over-
ride these testimonies and to convince us that we had
altered our assessment of the formidable nature of
Russian power.

Concerning the general policy of the Powers in the
years before 1914, Professor Temperley wrote: "I fail
to see any respect in which Russia was better than
Germany—and in some respects she was worse".
Since England came under criticism later for not holding
back Russia a little more in 1914 it is interesting to note
that a few months after the outbreak of war we reversed
all the traditions of our foreign policy by promising